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Despite this legal patchwork, the percentage of same-sex parents with waiting for adoption — now about , in the United States — and the . Matt and Ray Lees both have college degrees and white-collar jobs at. Of the , same-sex couple households in the United States, , have children. Some people say that children need both a mother and a father to. These families live throughout the country: of same-sex couples by region, school, 43% are raising children, and 20% of children raised by same-sex Among couples with children, the proportion of same-sex couples who have adopted.
Little research has explored parental engagement in schools in the context of adoptive parent families or same-sex parent families. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about positive or neutral topics e.
Parents who reported more contact by College hookup gay parents adoption statistics in the united about negative topics e. Regarding the broader school context, across all family types, parents who felt more accepted by other parents reported more involvement and better parent—teacher relationships; socializing with other parents was related to greater involvement.
Our findings have implications for school professionals, such as school psychologists, who work with diverse families. Individuals, including children, are profoundly impacted by the settings in which they live e. In fact, school engagement is the main focus of family—school relationship standards established by leading national organizations, such as the National Parent Teacher Association In turn, school psychologists can play a valuable role in promoting parent engagement through home—school collaborations and providing appropriate assessment and interventions for parents, teachers, and other school professionals Beveridge, We examine these College hookup gay parents adoption statistics in the united in adoptive parent couples: Such work is important, in order to identify College hookup gay parents adoption statistics in the united established predictors of school engagement hold up in these understudied family forms, as well as to identify unique predictors of school engagement.
Many aspects of the school environment assume a biological relationship between parent and child, and the language of teachers and parents, class assignments, and school forms may serve to stigmatize or exclude adoptive families.
Understanding predictors of, and processes related to, parent engagement in adoptive and same-sex parent families is highly relevant to the field of school psychology, as such families become increasingly common and visible. As with any cultural competency, understanding the concerns and interests of adoptive and same-sex parents should inform the work that school psychologists engage in, including assessment, consultation, intervention, and systems change Nastasi, School psychologists, as well as other school personnel, will be more effective if they can understand, anticipate, and ideally prevent barriers to school engagement among same-sex and heterosexual adoptive parent families.
Indeed, strong and healthy parent-school relationships have the capacity to benefit parents, children, and schools Beveridge, Although all adoptive families may face marginalization in schools, same-sex parent families face additional issues, insomuch as they violate several assumptions about families.
Namely, they violate the assumptions of both parent—child biological relatedness and parental heterosexuality Byard et al. Their deviation from heteronormative family ideals, in turn, renders them highly visible and thus vulnerable to marginalization, exclusion, and stigmatization.
Notably, their involvement in schools may be driven by their desire to ensure that their children are not discriminated against. That is, they may feel that their presence makes it harder for the school to ignore, marginalize, or discriminate against their children or families Goldberg, Contrasting data, however, have been reported by Fedewa and Clarkwho used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort ECLS-K dataset to compare same-sex parent and heterosexual-parent families in terms of their self-reported level of parent communication with the school and the strength of their home-school partnerships.
Fedewa and Clark—who, unlike Kosciw and Diazfocused specifically on parents of young children—found no evidence for differences in parent—school relationships by family type. To the extent that they are able to place their children in affirming environments, this environment may result in few homophobic incidents and generally strong family—school relationships. The sexual orientation of parents may also moderate differences in engagement based on gender.
Whether this finding holds up in same-sex parent families—who tend to be more egalitarian in terms of parental roles Goldberg, —is unknown. In a review of the parenting literature, Biblarz and Stacey found that parent gender was stronger predictor of parenting than sexual orientation, suggesting that gender may emerge as a significant predictor of parental engagement regardless of parental sexual orientation.
It is also possible that gender interacts with sexual orientation, such that, for example, sexual minority mothers and heterosexual mothers may College hookup gay parents adoption statistics in the united similarly involved, but sexual minority fathers may be more involved than heterosexual fathers.
One exception is a study of school-initiated contact by Rimm-Kaufman and Piantawhich differentiated among topics about which contact was being made academic problems, behavior problems, health, positive issues, and family support and found that kindergarten families received more contact about negative topics e. Unknown is how contact about negative versus positive topics may be differentially related to parent engagement.
Perhaps contact about negative topics negatively influences parent—teacher relationships and school satisfaction but positively influences involvement, whereas contact about positive or neutral topics is positively related to all three dimensions of engagement involvement, relationships, and satisfaction. One exception is the GLSEN study conducted by Kosciw and Diazwhich found that same-sex parents reported more contact about both positive or neutrally charged issues e.
Not all studies, however, find that perceived social support from parents is related to school involvement. For example, in a study of African American parents, support from other parents was unrelated to school involvement McKay et al. Misinformation and stigma related to adoption are still pervasive in the broader society Goldberg et al.
Teachers, for example, may fail to attend to the multiple dimensions of difference that may impinge upon the identity or experiences of adopted children Enge, They may also neglect to discuss racial or diversity in the classroom, perhaps because they believe that young children are too young to understand these issues Husband,despite evidence to the contrary Park, One exception is a study by Nowak-Fabrykowski, Helinski, and Buchsteinwhich surveyed 23 heterosexual foster parents.
Goldberg and Smith found that racial diversity in particular mattered to same-sex parents when choosing preschools: The authors suggest that this differential rate of perceived adoption stigma may reflect their greater sensitivity to this form of bias, compared to same-sex parents, who encounter multiple forms of stigma and who thus may be less sensitive to adoption-related insensitivities or more likely to attribute bias to their sexual orientation.
None of the above studies examined how perceived inclusiveness regarding culture, adoption, and diversity are related to parental engagement. Also, the literature is conflicting with regard to whether same-sex parents and heterosexual parents are differentially attuned to or affected by such perceptions, and the implications of such perceptions for school engagement. We do not have hypotheses about how a sexual orientation, b perceived acceptance by parents, and c socializing with parents, may be related to parent—teacher relationships or school satisfaction.
As there is not sufficient literature in these areas to speculate about such associations, our examination of these associations was exploratory. We also conducted a series of exploratory interactions. We examined the interaction between sexual orientation and gender in predicting involvement, parent—teacher relationships, and school satisfaction, but we did not have specific hypotheses about the direction of these associations. We also conducted exploratory interactions between a cultural sensitivity and sexual orientation and b adoption stigma and sexual orientation, out of interest in whether diversity-related variables differentially affect school engagement for same-sex and heterosexual adoptive parents.
Data were taken from a longitudinal study of adoptive-parent families, conducted by the first author e. All couples had adopted their first child 5 years earlier. Participants were included in the current study if their adopted child was in kindergarten. Descriptive data from
College hookup gay parents adoption statistics in the united broken down by sexual orientation and gender appear in Table 1.
For all analyses of demographic characteristics across groups, unless otherwise reported, the a priori alpha level needed for statistical significance was. MLM revealed no differences in education level by gender or sexual orientation or their interaction.
Their adoptive children, in contrast, were mostly of color i. Chi square tests of independence showed that the distribution of parent race did not differ by gender, sexual orientation, or their interaction;
College hookup gay parents adoption statistics in the united, child race and child gender did not differ by family type female same-sex, male same-sex, and heterosexual.
Chi square tests of independence showed that school type did not differ by family type. Each partner within every couple was asked to complete the following measures separately i. The first subscale, Parent Involvement, contained 9 items e. The second subscale, Parent-Teacher Relationship, contained 7 items e. The third subscale, School Satisfaction, contained 4 items e.
The alpha values for the PTIQ three scales are as follows: Sexual orientation refers to whether participants were in same-sex or heterosexual relationships. Parent gender refers to the self-reported gender of each partner in each couple.
The issues were addressed in the following items: Both variables contact about negative topics and contact about positive or neutral topics were then mean-centered. Parents responded to five items e. In our study, the alpha value for the scale which was mean-centered was. In our study, the alpha value for this subscale which was mean-centered was. In this sample, the alpha value for the measure which was mean-centered was. We used the Externalizing Problems score as a predictor variable in follow-up analyses.
We transformed the raw scores into standard T scores, which were mean-centered. Higher scores represent more symptoms. In our sample, the mean T score was The alpha value was. Each parent was asked to report on his or her annual salary. Both working more hours Weiss et al. Parents were asked to indicate the age of their child at the time of the interview.
We included child age in months mean-centered as a control variable. We suspected that parents of younger children or children in their first year of kindergarten might be more involved than parents of older children, in light of research showing that parents may be especially involved during the transition to kindergarten McIntyre et al.
Parents were College hookup gay parents adoption statistics in the united to indicate whether their child attended a public or private preschool. We controlled for type of school based on research suggesting College hookup gay parents adoption statistics in the united insomuch as parents who send their children to private school chose that school i.
Notably, some research e. Participants in this study were originally recruited during the pre-adoptive period while couples were waiting for a child. Inclusion criteria were a couples must be adopting their first child and b both partners must be becoming parents for the first time. Adoption agencies throughout the United States were asked to provide study information to clients who had not yet adopted; this information was typically in the form of a brochure that invited clients to participate in a study of the transition College hookup gay parents adoption statistics in the united adoptive parenthood.
We explicitly invited both same-sex and heterosexual couples to participate, because a goal of the study was to understand how same-sex couples, specifically, College hookup gay parents adoption statistics in the united the transition to adoptive parenthood. We recruited both heterosexual and same-sex couples through these agencies, in an effort to match couples roughly on geographic status and financial resources. Over 30 agencies provided information to their clients; interested couples were asked to contact the principal investigator for details.
For example, the Human Rights Campaign posted a description of the study on their Family-Net listserv, which is sent to 15, people per month. Participants in the study completed in-depth questionnaires before the adoptive placement, 3 months post-placement, 1 year post-placement, 2 years post-placement, 3 years post-placement, and 5 years post-adoptive placement. Data for the current study come from the 5 years post-adoptive placement assessment. Both partners in each couple were asked to complete the packet.
Data were missing for 10 persons in the couples: For all analyses, there were persons nested in couples. Because we examined partners nested in couples, it was necessary to use a
College hookup gay parents adoption statistics in the united that would account for the within-couple correlations in the outcome scores. MLM adjusts the error variance for the interdependence of partner outcomes within the same dyad, which results in more accurate standard errors and associated hypothesis tests.
Another methodological challenge is introduced in the study of dyads when there is no meaningful way to differentiate the two dyad members e. In this case, dyad members are considered to be exchangeable or interchangeable Kenny et al. To deal with intracouple differences, the Level-1 model was a within-couples model that used information from both members of the couple to define one parameter—an intercept, or average score—for each couple.
This intercept is a random variable that is treated as an outcome variable at Level 2.
Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families.
This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families.
Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families.
Cathy Renna, , cathy rennacommunications. Demographic data show significant diversity among same-sex couples with children. These families live throughout the country: Curiously, the proportion of same-sex couples raising children has begun to decline. Despite the decline, the number of same-sex couples raising children is still much higher today than ten years ago since many more couples are reporting themselves in Census Bureau data.
In , the Census reported about 63, couples raising children. Today, the figure is now more than , The decrease in the proportion of couples raising children may be due to decreases in parenting by lesbian, gay and bisexual LGB individuals who had children at a relatively young age while in a relationship with a different-sex partner. Different-sex relationships at a relatively young age are a common path to parenthood for LGB men and women. Same-sex couples with adopted children are twice as likely to be White, to have obtained a higher level of education, and to have never been previously married.
The geographic data suggest that many same-sex couples with children live in states with limited or no legal protections for their families.
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What Our Families Look Like: Like other parents, LGBTQ parents are married, While the prevalence of marriage in the general population continues to decline, the LGBTQ people and same-sex couples are more likely to foster and adopt . in the United States (Los Angeles, CA: Williams Institute, UCLA School of. Keywords: adoption, gay, kindergarten, lesbian, parent–teacher relationships, .. The authors suggest that this differential rate of perceived adoption stigma Parents' School-Based Involvement: We expect that same-sex adoptive .. Adoption agencies throughout the United States were asked to provide. Keywords Same-sex parenting, research methods, lesbian parenting, LGBT issues, High school graduation rates among children of same-sex households. .. H. () Demographic characteristics of lesbian parents in the United States. Brodzinsky, D. M., Green, R. J., Katuzny, K. () Adoption by lesbians and gay.